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Python requests 库示例

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requests 是Python的第三方HTTP请求库,爬虫常用库之一。本文就来学习下简单的示例程序。

官方地址:

  1. https://pypi.org/project/requests/
  2. https://2.python-requests.org/en/master/

获取请求

"""
@requests 库示例
"""
import requests

# 创建请求对象
res = requests.get('https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000012681700')

print(dir(res))

请求对象包含一下内容:

[‘__attrs__’, ‘__bool__’, ‘__class__’, ‘__delattr__’, ‘__dict__’, ‘__dir__’, ‘__doc__’, ‘__enter__’, ‘__eq__’, ‘__exit__’, ‘__format__’, ‘__ge__’, ‘__getattribute__’, ‘__getstate__’, ‘__gt__’, ‘__hash__’, ‘__init__’, ‘__init_subclass__’, ‘__iter__’, ‘__le__’, ‘__lt__’, ‘__module__’, ‘__ne__’, ‘__new__’, ‘__nonzero__’, ‘__reduce__’, ‘__reduce_ex__’, ‘__repr__’, ‘__setattr__’, ‘__setstate__’, ‘__sizeof__’, ‘__str__’, ‘__subclasshook__’, ‘__weakref__’, ‘_content’, ‘_content_consumed’, ‘_next’, ‘apparent_encoding’, ‘close’, ‘connection’, ‘content’, ‘cookies’, ‘elapsed’, ‘encoding’, ‘headers’, ‘history’, ‘is_permanent_redirect’, ‘is_redirect’, ‘iter_content’, ‘iter_lines’, ‘json’, ‘links’, ‘next’, ‘ok’, ‘raise_for_status’, ‘raw’, ‘reason’, ‘request’, ‘status_code’, ‘text’, ‘url’]

示例

"""
@requests 库示例
"""
import requests


headers = {
    "Content-Type": "text/html",
    "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/74.0.3729.169 Safari/537.36"
}

def out_A():
    # 创建请求对象
    res = requests.get('https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000012681700', headers=headers)
    print(res.url) # 请求url
    print(res.status_code) # 请求状态码
    print(res.text) # 请求网页内容,字符串类型
    # print(res.content) # 输出 bytes 类型内容
    print(res.encoding) # 请求编码
    print(res.is_redirect) # 是否重定向


out_A()

请求常见状态码

100: (‘continue’,),
101: (‘switching_protocols’,),
102: (‘processing’,),
103: (‘checkpoint’,),
122: (‘uri_too_long’, ‘request_uri_too_long’),
200: (‘ok’, ‘okay’, ‘all_ok’, ‘all_okay’, ‘all_good’, ‘\\o/’, ‘✓’),
201: (‘created’,),
202: (‘accepted’,),
203: (‘non_authoritative_info’, ‘non_authoritative_information’),
204: (‘no_content’,),
205: (‘reset_content’, ‘reset’),
206: (‘partial_content’, ‘partial’),
207: (‘multi_status’, ‘multiple_status’, ‘multi_stati’, ‘multiple_stati’),
208: (‘already_reported’,),
226: (‘im_used’,),

# Redirection.
300: (‘multiple_choices’,),
301: (‘moved_permanently’, ‘moved’, ‘\\o-‘),
302: (‘found’,),
303: (‘see_other’, ‘other’),
304: (‘not_modified’,),
305: (‘use_proxy’,),
306: (‘switch_proxy’,),
307: (‘temporary_redirect’, ‘temporary_moved’, ‘temporary’),
308: (‘permanent_redirect’,
‘resume_incomplete’, ‘resume’,), # These 2 to be removed in 3.0

# Client Error.
400: (‘bad_request’, ‘bad’),
401: (‘unauthorized’,),
402: (‘payment_required’, ‘payment’),
403: (‘forbidden’,),
404: (‘not_found’, ‘-o-‘),
405: (‘method_not_allowed’, ‘not_allowed’),
406: (‘not_acceptable’,),
407: (‘proxy_authentication_required’, ‘proxy_auth’, ‘proxy_authentication’),
408: (‘request_timeout’, ‘timeout’),
409: (‘conflict’,),
410: (‘gone’,),
411: (‘length_required’,),
412: (‘precondition_failed’, ‘precondition’),
413: (‘request_entity_too_large’,),
414: (‘request_uri_too_large’,),
415: (‘unsupported_media_type’, ‘unsupported_media’, ‘media_type’),
416: (‘requested_range_not_satisfiable’, ‘requested_range’, ‘range_not_satisfiable’),
417: (‘expectation_failed’,),
418: (‘im_a_teapot’, ‘teapot’, ‘i_am_a_teapot’),
421: (‘misdirected_request’,),
422: (‘unprocessable_entity’, ‘unprocessable’),
423: (‘locked’,),
424: (‘failed_dependency’, ‘dependency’),
425: (‘unordered_collection’, ‘unordered’),
426: (‘upgrade_required’, ‘upgrade’),
428: (‘precondition_required’, ‘precondition’),
429: (‘too_many_requests’, ‘too_many’),
431: (‘header_fields_too_large’, ‘fields_too_large’),
444: (‘no_response’, ‘none’),
449: (‘retry_with’, ‘retry’),
450: (‘blocked_by_windows_parental_controls’, ‘parental_controls’),
451: (‘unavailable_for_legal_reasons’, ‘legal_reasons’),
499: (‘client_closed_request’,),

# Server Error.
500: (‘internal_server_error’, ‘server_error’, ‘/o\\’, ‘✗’),
501: (‘not_implemented’,),
502: (‘bad_gateway’,),
503: (‘service_unavailable’, ‘unavailable’),
504: (‘gateway_timeout’,),
505: (‘http_version_not_supported’, ‘http_version’),
506: (‘variant_also_negotiates’,),
507: (‘insufficient_storage’,),
509: (‘bandwidth_limit_exceeded’, ‘bandwidth’),
510: (‘not_extended’,),
511: (‘network_authentication_required’, ‘network_auth’, ‘network_authentication’),

JSON

import requests

r = requests.get('https://api.github.com/events')
print(r.json())

 

超时

import requests
from requests.exceptions import ReadTimeout

try:
    response = requests.get("https://www.baidu.com", timeout=0.5)
    print(response.status_code)
except ReadTimeout:
    print('Timeout')

代理

import requests
# 代理设置
proxies = {
 "http": "http://127.0.0.1:9743",
 "https": "https://127.0.0.1:9743",
}

res = requests.get('https://segmentfault.com/a/1190000012681700', headers=headers, proxies=proxies)

 

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